The Lisbon wine region is one of the most productive of Portugal. The vineyards are very influenced by the sea and the wind for being so close to the Atlantic Coast, but there are also vineyards in the interior, protected by mountains. The Lisbon region is composed of nine sub regions. Closer to the capital, in the south, there are the regions Bucelas, Colares and Carcavelos. In the centre, Alenquer, Arruda, Lourinhã, Óbidos and Torres Vedras, and in the north, Encostas de Aire. The ground can be clay-limestone and clay-sand. The climate is temperate, with no thermal extremes. The vineyards from Lisbon date back to the ancient times, we can find here traces of Phoenicians, Romans, Greeks and Visigoths. The Ordem de Cister, in Alcobaça, also had an important role in viticulture. Here, we can find, from the most traditional Portuguese varieties, to the most famous international ones. It produces a great quantity and variety of wines.